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- New agile protocols:
- [Security Agility Solution Independent of the Underlaying Protocol Architecture](https://www.semanticscholar.org/paper/Security-Agility-Solution-Independent-of-the-Vasic-Mikuc/489054a1f28eb26b1baa1a9f0caff2306c821695) The agilecryptographic negotiation protocol (ACNP) proposed in this paper repre-sents a layer-agnostic, robust solution that can be deployed for providingcryptographic agility and greatly improve security. [[VM12]](../../refs#vm12)
- [Stateful Hash-based Digital Signature Schemes for Bitcoin Cryptocurrency](https://ieeexplore.ieee.org/document/9043192) This research work presents basic analysis and the background understanding of Stateful Hash-based Signature Schemes, particularly the Lamport One-Time Signature Scheme, Winternitz One-Time Signature Scheme, and the Merkle Signature Scheme. [[NWAO19]](../../refs#nwao19)
- [Post-Quantum TLS without Handshake Signatures](https://eprint.iacr.org/2020/534.pdf) KEMTLS alternative handshake for TLS 1.3 using KEMs [[SSW20]](../../refs#ssw20)
- Enhance existing protocols for use with PQC:
- [Public Key Cryptography for Initial Authentication in Kerberos (PKINIT) Algorithm Agility](https://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc8636.html) This document updates the Public Key Cryptography for Initial Authentication in Kerberos (PKINIT) standard (RFC 4556) to remove protocol structures tied to specific cryptographic algorithms. [[AZCH19]](../../refs#azch19)
- [The Secure Socket API: TLS as an Operating System Service](https://www.usenix.org/conference/usenixsecurity18/presentation/oneill) We explore the use of the standard POSIX socket API as a vehicle for a simplified TLS API, while also giving administrators the ability to control applications and tailor TLS configuration to their needs. [[OHW+18]](../../refs#ohw18)
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- [liboqs](https://github.com/open-quantum-safe/liboqs):
An open source C library for quantum-safe cryptographic algorithms.
- [NaCL (Salt)](https://nacl.cr.yp.to/):
Software library for network communication, encryption, decryption, signatures, etc.
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Evaluation of the performance of PQC algorithms in various facets, classified into thethree subcategories: *Algorithm Performance, Network Performance, and Hardware Performance*
##### **Algorithm Performance**
- PQC evaluation on chosen hardware:
- PQC evaluation on selected hardware:
- [On Feasibility of Post-Quantum Cryptography on Small Devices](https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2405896318308474) Experimental post-quantum cryptography implementations on small devices with different platforms [[MPD+18]](../../refs#mpd18)
- [Towards Practical Deployment of Post-quantum Cryptography on Constrained Platforms and Hardware-Accelerated Platforms](https://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-030-41025-4_8) Evaluation of the NIST candidates regarding their suitability for the implementation on special hardware platforms [[MRD+20]](../../refs#mrd20)
- Improvements to PQC algorithms:
- [Performance Optimization of Lattice Post-Quantum Cryptographic Algorithms on Many-Core Processors](https://ieeexplore.ieee.org/abstract/document/9238630?casa_token=j7T_SBR8ECgAAAAA:Skx0Ze-JY3YP5CSLn20TOmrWviAP_-aUZ0b9W_gpR5fDpO8AWLigR52JC4qZVPTbLlIzv-3p2g) 52% and 83% improvement in performance for the CRYSTALS-Kyber KEM SHA3 variant and AES variant through Vectorization [[KKP20]](../../refs#kkp20)
- [Memory-Efficient High-Speed Implementation of Kyber on Cortex-M4](http://link.springer.com/10.1007/978-3-030-23696-0_11) Optimized software implementation of Kyber for the ARM Cortex-M4 microcontroller [[BKS19]](../../refs#bks19)
- [CTIDH: Faster Constant-Time CSIDH](https://eprint.iacr.org/2021/633.pdf) Speed records for constant-time CSIDH (Commutative Supersingular Isogeny Diffie–Hellman) through combining a new key space with a new algorithm [[BBC+21]](../../refs#bbc21)
- Lattice-based vs. Isogeny-based:
- PQC evaluation on selected architectures:
- [Towards Post-Quantum Security for Cyber-Physical Systems: Integrating PQC into Industrial M2M Communication](https://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-030-59013-0_15) Two solutions for the integration of PQ primitives into the industrial protocol Open Platform Communications Unified Architecture (OPC UA) [[PASC20]](../../refs#pasc20)
- [Incorporating Post-Quantum Cryptographyin a Microservice Environment](https://homepages.staff.os3.nl/~delaat/rp/2019-2020/p13/report.pdf) On the practical feasibility of using PQCin a microservice architecture [[WvdG20]](../../refs#wvdg20)
- [Portable Implementation of Postquantum Encryption Schemes and Key Exchange Protocols on JavaScript-Enabled Platforms](https://www.hindawi.com/journals/scn/2018/9846168/) Implementation of several lattice-based encryption schemes and public-key exchange protocols including Lizard, ring-Lizard, Kyber, Frodo, and NewHope in JavaScript [[YXF+18]](../../refs#yxf18)
- PQC in IoT:
- [From Pre-Quantum to Post-Quantum IoT Security: A Survey on Quantum-Resistant Cryptosystems for the Internet of Things](https://ieeexplore.ieee.org/abstract/document/8932459) A wide view of post-quantum IoT security and give useful guidelines [[FC20]](../../refs#fc20)
- PQC in Distributed Ledger:
......@@ -32,8 +33,11 @@ Evaluation of the performance of PQC algorithms in various facets, classified in
- [Implementation and benchmarking of round 2 candidates in the NIST post-quantum cryptography standardization process using hardware and software/hardware co-design approaches](https://cryptography.gmu.edu/athena/PQC/GMU_PQC_2020_SW_HW.pdf) Methodology for implementing and benchmarking PQC candidates usingboth hardware and software/hardware co-design approaches [[DFA+20]](../../refs#dfa20)
- [Post-Quantum Cryptography on FPGA Based on Isogenies on Elliptic Curves](https://ieeexplore.ieee.org/abstract/document/7725935) Isogeny-based schemes can be implemented with high efficiency on reconfigurable hardware [[KAMJ17]](../../refs#kamj17)
- [Post-Quantum Secure Boot](https://ieeexplore.ieee.org/document/9116252) Post-quantum secure boot solution implemented fully as hardware for reasons of security and performance [[KGC+20]](../../refs#kgc20)
- [Efficient and Scalable FPGA-Oriented Design of QC-LDPC Bit-Flipping Decoders for Post-Quantum Cryptography](https://ieeexplore.ieee.org/document/9180360) Performance speedup of five times using the Xilinx Artix-7 200 FPGA [[ZGF20]](../../refs#zgf20)
- Hardware Security Modules (HSMs):
- [Post-Quantum Secure Architectures for Automotive Hardware Secure Modules](https://eprint.iacr.org/2020/026.pdf) Building a post-quantum secure automotive HSM is feasible and can meet the hard requirements imposed by a modern vehicle ECU [[WaSt20]](../../refs#wast20)
- GPU Implementations:
- [Efficient Parallel Implementations of LWE-Based Post-Quantum Cryptosystems on Graphics Processing Units](https://www.mdpi.com/2227-7390/8/10/1781) Performance improvements using graphical proccesing units for LWE-based algorithms [[AnSe20]](../../refs#anse20)
##### **Network Performacne**
- Measurements and benchmarks:
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- Hybrid Certificates:
- [X.509-Compliant Hybrid Certificates for the Post-Quantum Transition](http://tubiblio.ulb.tu-darmstadt.de/115809/): Parallel usage of two independent cryptographic schemes within public key infrastructures enabling a stepwise transition to post-quantum secureand hybrid algorithms [[BBG+19]](../../refs#bbg19)
- Decentralized PKIs:
- [QChain: Quantum-resistant and Decentralized PKI using Blockchain](https://caislab.kaist.ac.kr/publication/paper_files/2018/SCIS'18_HC_BC.pdf): Quantum-resistant decentralized PKI system using blockchain [[AnKi18]](../../refs#anki18)
- [QChain: Quantum-resistant and Decentralized PKI using Blockchain](https://caislab.kaist.ac.kr/publication/paper_files/2018/SCIS'18_HC_BC.pdf): Quantum-resistant decentralized PKI system using blockchain [[AnKi18]](../../refs#anki18)
<!-- - PQC protocol integration: -->
<!-- - [Post-Quantum Kryptographie - Classic McEliece](/docs/migration/McEliece.pdf) Introducing a new ASN.1 PQ key format and an evaluation of PQ integration for several cryptographic protocols [[Meun21]](../../refs#meun21) -->
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- Key/sig. size tradeoffs:
- [The Viability of Post-quantum X.509 Certificates](https://eprint.iacr.org/2018/063.pdf): Present suitable parameters for software signature use cases and good signature candidates for TLS 1.3 authentication. [[KPDG18]](../../refs#kpdg18)
- [Towards post-quantum security for cyber-physical systems: Integrating PQC into industrial m2m communication](http://link.springer.com/10.1007/978-3-030-59013-0_15): Tradeoffs in security: big key/certificate sizes results in problems and difficulties for various protocols.[[PS20]](../../refs#ps20)
- [A Comparison of Security and its Performance for Key Agreements in Post-Quantum Cryptography](https://ieeexplore.ieee.org/document/9153901) Complexity analysis on isogeny-based, code-based and lattice-baced PQC schemes [[BRP20]](../../refs#brp20)
##### **Cryptanalysis**
- Anonymity:
- [NTRU leads to Anonymous, Robust Public-Key Encryption](https://eprint.iacr.org/2021/741.pdf) Solution to the open problem of the anonymity and robustness of NTRU [[Xag21]](../../refs#xag21)
- PQC schemes broken by cryptanalysis:
- [Cryptanalysis of the Lifted Unbalanced Oil Vinegar Signature Scheme](https://eprint.iacr.org/2019/1490.pdf): A new type of attack called Subfield Differential Attack (SDA) on Lifted Unbalanced Oil and Vinegar (LUOV) [[DDS+20]](../../refs#dds20)
- [Quantum cryptanalysis on some generalized Feistel schemes](https://eprint.iacr.org/2017/1249.pdf): Quantum distinguishers to introduce generic quantum key-recovery attacks [[DLW19]](../../refs#dlw19)
- [A reaction attack against cryptosystems based on LRPC codes.](https://eprint.iacr.org/2019/845.pdf): Analyze cryptosystems based on Low-Rank Parity-Check (LRPC) codes. [[SSPB19]](../../refs#sspb19)
- [On Quantum Chosen-Ciphertext Attacks and Learning with Errors](https://www.mdpi.com/2410-387X/4/1/10) Chosen cipher-text attack using a new variant of the Bernstein–Vazirani algorithm on LWE algorithms [[AJO+20]](../../refs#ajo20)
- New security assessment methods:
- [Quantum Cryptanalysis in the RAM Model: Claw-Finding Attacks on SIKE.](https://eprint.iacr.org/2019/103.pdf): New models of computation which allow a direct comparison between classical and quantum algorithms [[JS19]](../../refs#js19)
- [A classification of differential invariants for multivariate post-quantum cryptosystems](http://link.springer.com/10.1007/978-3-642-38616-9_11): Present an extension of a recent measure of security against a differential adversary. The technique assures security against any first-order differential invariant adversary. [[PST13]](../../refs#pst13)
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- [NCCoE](https://www.nccoe.nist.gov/projects/building-blocks/post-quantum-cryptography):
NCCoE project Migration to Post-Quantum Cryptography.
- [Open Quantum Safe](https://openquantumsafe.org/):
An open-source project that aims to support the development and prototyping of quantum-resistant cryptography.
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###### [ADPS16]
[E. Alkim, L. Ducas, T. Pöppelmann, and P. Schwabe. Post-quantum key exchange—a new hope. In 25Th {USENIX } security symposium ( {USENIX } security 16), pages 327–343, 2016](https://eprint.iacr.org/2015/1092.pdf)
###### [AJO+20]
[Alagic G, Jeffery S, Ozols M, Poremba A. On Quantum Chosen-Ciphertext Attacks and Learning with Errors. Cryptography. 2020; 4(1):10. https://doi.org/10.3390/cryptography4010010](https://www.mdpi.com/2410-387X/4/1/10)
###### [AnKi18]
[An, H., & Kim, K. (2018, January). QChain: Quantum-resistant and decentralized PKI using blockchain. In Proc. SCIS (pp. 1-8).](https://caislab.kaist.ac.kr/publication/paper_files/2018/SCIS'18_HC_BC.pdf)
###### [AnSe20]
[An, SangWoo, and Seog Chung Seo. "Efficient Parallel Implementations of LWE-Based Post-Quantum Cryptosystems on Graphics Processing Units." Mathematics 8.10 (2020): 1781.](https://www.mdpi.com/2227-7390/8/10/1781)
###### [AVVY19]
[F. Armknecht, I. Verbauwhede, M. Volkamer, and M. Yung, editors. Biggest Failures in Security, volume 9 of Dagstuhl Reports. Dagstuhl Publishing, Nov. 2019.](https://drops.dagstuhl.de/opus/volltexte/2020/11981/)
......@@ -60,6 +66,9 @@ weight: 8
###### [Bra16]
[M. Braithwaite. Experimenting with post-quantum cryptography, 2016.](https://security.googleblog.com/2016/07/experimenting-with-post-quantum.html)
###### [BRP20]
[F. Borges, P. R. Reis and D. Pereira, "A Comparison of Security and its Performance for Key Agreements in Post-Quantum Cryptography," in IEEE Access, vol. 8, pp. 142413-142422, 2020, doi: 10.1109/ACCESS.2020.3013250.](https://ieeexplore.ieee.org/document/9153901)
###### [BSI20]
[BSI. 2020. Migration zu Post-Quanten-Kryptografie.](https://www.bsi.bund.de/SharedDocs/Downloads/DE/BSI/Krypto/Post-Quanten-Kryptografie.html)
......@@ -294,6 +303,9 @@ weight: 8
###### [SSPB19]
[S. Samardjiska, P. Santini, E. Persichetti, and G. Banegas. A reaction attack against cryptosystems based on LRPC codes. In P. Schwabe and N. Thériault, editors, Progress in Cryptology – LATINCRYPT 2019, pages 197–216. Springer International Pub- lishing, 2019.](https://eprint.iacr.org/2019/845.pdf)
###### [SSW20]
[Peter Schwabe, Douglas Stebila, and Thom Wiggers. 2020. Post-Quantum TLS Without Handshake Signatures. In Proceedings of the 2020 ACM SIGSAC Conference on Computer and Communications Security (CCS '20). Association for Computing Machinery, New York, NY, USA, 1461–1480. DOI:https://doi.org/10.1145/3372297.3423350](https://eprint.iacr.org/2020/534)
###### [StMo16]
[D. Stebila and M. Mosca. 2016. Post-quantum Key Exchange for the Internet and the Open Quantum Safe Project. In Selected Areas in Cryptography – SAC2016, R. Avanzi and H. Heys (Eds.). Springer International Publishing, 14–37](https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-69453-5_2)
......@@ -321,15 +333,27 @@ weight: 8
###### [WaSt20]
[Wang, W., & Stöttinger, M. (2020). Post-Quantum Secure Architectures for Automotive Hardware Secure Modules. IACR Cryptol. ePrint Arch., 2020, 26](https://eprint.iacr.org/2020/026.pdf)
###### [WvdG20]
[D. Weller and R. van der Gaag. 2020. Incorporating post-quantum cryptographyin a microservice environment. (2020), 36](https://homepages.staff.os3.nl/~delaat/rp/2019-2020/p13/report.pdf)
###### [WiSo21]
[Barker, William, and Murugiah Souppaya. [Project Description] Migration to Post-Quantum Cryptography (Draft). National Institute of Standards and Technology, 2021.](https://www.nccoe.nist.gov/sites/default/files/library/project-descriptions/pqc-migration-project-description-draft.pdf)
###### [Wh+17]
[Whyte, William, et al. "Quantum-safe hybrid (QSH) key exchange for Transport Layer Security (TLS) version 1.3." IETF Draft (2017)](https://datatracker.ietf.org/doc/html/draft-whyte-qsh-tls13-06)
###### [WvdG20]
[D. Weller and R. van der Gaag. 2020. Incorporating post-quantum cryptographyin a microservice environment. (2020), 36](https://homepages.staff.os3.nl/~delaat/rp/2019-2020/p13/report.pdf)
###### [Xag21]
[Keita Xagawa. NTRU leads to Anonymous, Robust Public-Key Encryption. Cryptology ePrint Archive, Report 2021/741. 2021](https://eprint.iacr.org/2021/741)
###### [YXF+18]
[Yuan, Y., Xiao, J., Fukushima, K., Kiyomoto, S., & Takagi, T. (2018). Portable Implementation of Postquantum Encryption Schemes and Key Exchange Protocols on JavaScript-Enabled Platforms. Security and Communication Networks, 2018.](https://www.hindawi.com/journals/scn/2018/9846168/)
###### [Zei20]
[A. Zeier. 08.12.2020. eucrite 1.0 API.](https://use-a-pqclib.h-da.io/eucrite-documentation/)
###### [ZGF20]
[D. Zoni, A. Galimberti and W. Fornaciari, "Efficient and Scalable FPGA-Oriented Design of QC-LDPC Bit-Flipping Decoders for Post-Quantum Cryptography," in IEEE Access, vol. 8, pp. 163419-163433, 2020, doi: 10.1109/ACCESS.2020.3020262.](https://ieeexplore.ieee.org/document/9180360)
###### [Zim15]
[Zimmer, Dipl-Inf Ephraim. "Post-Quantum Kryptographie für IPsec." Sicherheit in vernetzten Systemen-22. DFN-Konferenz. Ed. by Christian Paulsen. DFN-CERT. 2015.](https://svs.informatik.uni-hamburg.de/publications/2015/2015-02-24-Zimmer-DFN-PQC-fuer-IPsec.pdf)
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......@@ -19,3 +19,4 @@ A collection of survey papers and references dealing with general challenges and
- [Migration zu Post-Quanten-Kryptografie](https://www.bsi.bund.de/SharedDocs/Downloads/DE/BSI/Krypto/Post-Quanten-Kryptografie.html): Recommendations for action on migration to PQC by the BSI (German Federal Office for Information Security) [[BSI20]](../refs#bsi20).
- [Quantencomputerresistente Kryptografie: Aktuelle Aktivitäten und Fragestellungen](https://www.secumedia-shop.net/Deutschland-Digital-Sicher-30-Jahre-BSI): A brief evaluation of the current state of both post-quantum and quantum cryptography [[HLL+21]](../refs#hll21).
- [Quantum Safe Cryptography and Security: An introduction, benefits, enablers and challenges](https://www.etsi.org/images/files/ETSIWhitePapers/QuantumSafeWhitepaper.pdf): Important use cases for cryptography and potential migration strategies to transition to post-quantum cryptography [[CCD+15]](../refs#ccd15).
- [Migration to Post-Quantum Cryptography](https://www.nccoe.nist.gov/sites/default/files/library/project-descriptions/pqc-migration-project-description-draft.pdf): NCCoE and NIST Project description for PQC migration [[WiSo21]](../refs#wiso21).
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