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# Cryptographic Migration & Agility
An open community site for sharing any relevant research, findings, and solutions on PQC migration and cryptographic agility.
- [About Cryptographic Migration and Agility](#about-cryptographic-migration-and-agility)
- [Our Research Group](#our-research-group)
- [Related Work](#related-work)
- [State of Migration](#state-of-migration)
- [PQC Algorithms](#pqc-algorithms)
- [Performance Considerations](#performance-considerations)
- [Algorithm Performance](#algorithm-performance)
- [Hardware Performance](#hardware-performance)
- [Network Performacne](#network-performacne)
- [Security Considerations](#security-considerations)
- [Algorithm, Parameter Selection and Tradeoffs](#algorithm-parameter-selection-and-Tradeoffs)
- [Cryptanalysis](#cryptanalysis)
- [Side-Channel Attacks](#side-channel-attacks)
- [Algorithm Migration Process](#algorithm-migration-process)
- [Automation and Frameworks](#automation-and-frameworks)
- [New Standards](#new-standards)
- [State of Agility](#state-of-agility)
- [Modalities](#modalities)
- [Development Considerations](#development-considerations)
- [Testing](#testing)
- [Incentives and Best Practices](#incentives-and-best-practices)
- [Frontiers of Cryptography](#frontiers-of-cryptography)
- [Open Issues](#open-issues)
- [Standards](#standards)
- [Projects and Initiatives](#projects-and-initiatives)
- [Cryptographic Libraries and Interfaces](#cryptographic-libraries-and-interfaces)
- [References](#references)
- [To Add](#to-add)
- [Contributing](#contributing)
---
## About Cryptographic Migration and Agility
Post-quantum cryptographic schemes have been under development for several years. Very soon there will be standardized post-quantum algorithms replacing the previous standards, which will eventually become obsolete. In order for quantum-resistant cryptographic Measures to be utilized, one needs more than simply developing secure post-quantum algorithms. The migration towards PQC poses great challenges on different levels. Those are not only restricted to the integration into existing protocols, but also include performance issues such as hardware specifications and memory usage, and especially the uncertainty of long term security of the new algorithm families. Moreover, a major challenge lies within finding suitable means of communicating and negotiating new algorithms and protocol parameters between different IT-systems. This leads to the urgent need for establishing the concept of crypto-agility, so as to be prepared for the rapid changes of cryptography, and insure the compatibility in all possible scenarios and settings.
---
## Our Research Group
This site was initiated by the [Applied Cyber-Security](https://fbi.h-da.de/forschung/arbeitsgruppen/applied-cyber-security-darmstadt) research group of [Darmstadt University of Applied Sciences](https://h-da.de/) - [Department of Computer Science](https://fbi.h-da.de/), in cooperation with the [Athene](https://www.athene-center.de/forschung/forschungsbereiche/post-quantum-cryptography-7) group.
Our research group deals with the challenges of said migration, and searches for answers to the open questions in this field. We build upon our findings and analysis towards finding suitable solutions for achieving said migration and establishing crypto-agility in IT-systems. Our goal is to develop such solutions through design, strategies, frameworks and interfaces.
On the one hand we conduct research on the newest findings regarding cryptographic measures and their development state. This research is managed and updated continuously through a community-based website that will further gather the newest developments regarding PQC research. On the other hand, we Contribute to cutting edge post quantum cryptography technologies and it's applications, as we transform our theoretical and scientific findings into practical solutions, such as our recently developed cryptographic API (eUCRITE). Further, we intend to start the development of an automated tool for the detection of cryptographic components in IT-systems, that could simplify the migration in networks and IT-infrastructures through analyzing and identifying the existing cryptographic measures.
---
## Related Work
A collection of survey papers and references dealing with general challenges and recommendations regarding the migration to post-quantum cryptography and cryptographic agility.
*Some references do not include a direct hyperlink to their corresponding original sources. A full citation can however be found in the [references](#references) section. All references are listed in their order of appearance in this document.*
- [Identifying Research Challenges in Post Quantum Cryptography Migration and Cryptographic Agility](http://arxiv.org/abs/1909.07353): A wide range of topics and challenges at a high abstraction level grouped into categories of PQC migration and crypto-agility [OPp19](#[OPp19]).
- [Our Paper] [paper](#paper)
- [NCCoE Crypto-Agility](https://www.nccoe.nist.gov/projects/building-blocks/post-quantum-cryptography): Considerations for Migrating to Post-Quantum Cryptographic Algorithms [nccoe](#nccoe).
- [Practical Post-Quantum Cryptography](https://www.sit.fraunhofer.de/fileadmin/dokumente/studien_und_technical_reports/Practical.PostQuantum.Cryptography_WP_FraunhoferSIT.pdf?_=1503992279): White paper from the Fraunhofer Institute for Secure Information Technology SIT addressing challenges of PQC migration and comparison of PQC algorithms [sit](#sit).
- [From Pre-Quantum to Post-Quantum in IoT](#references): Challenges for PQC in IoT and comparison of the performance of PQC algorithms [FC20](#[FC20]).
- [Biggest Failures in IT Security](#references): A variety of problems in achieving IT security and possible strategies to solve them [AVVY19](#[AVVY19]).
- [Getting Ready for Post-Quantum Cryptography](https://nvlpubs.nist.gov/nistpubs/CSWP/NIST.CSWP.05262020-draft.pdf): Challenges associated with adoption and use of post-quantum cryptographic algorithms.
- [Migration zu Post-Quanten-Kryptografie](https://www.bsi.bund.de/SharedDocs/Downloads/DE/BSI/Krypto/Post-Quanten-Kryptografie.html): Recommendations for action on migration to PQC by the BSI (German Federal Office for Information Security).
- [Quantencomputerresistente Kryptografie: Aktuelle Aktivitäten und Fragestellungen](#references): A brief evaluation of the current state of both post-quantum and quantum cryptography.
- [Quantum Safe Cryptography and Security: An introduction, benefits, enablers and challenges](https://www.etsi.org/images/files/ETSIWhitePapers/QuantumSafeWhitepaper.pdf): Important use cases for cryptography and potential migration strategies to transition to post-quantum cryptography.
---
## State of Migration
#### PQC Algorithms
The current state of PQC is represented by the ongoing [NIST PQC standardization process](https://www.nist.gov/pqcrypto)
- [Report on post-quantum cryptography](https://nvlpubs.nist.gov/nistpubs/ir/2016/nist.ir.8105.pdf) [CJL+ 16](#[CJL+ 16]).
- [Status report on the first round](https://nvlpubs.nist.gov/nistpubs/ir/2019/NIST.IR.8240.pdf) [AASA+ 19](#[AASA+ 19]).
- [ Status report on the second round](https://nvlpubs.nist.gov/nistpubs/ir/2020/NIST.IR.8309.pdf) [MAA+ 20](#[MAA+ 20]).
**NIST PQC candidate algorithms:**
| Algorithm | Description | Type | NIST Round |
|-------------------------------------|-------------|------|------------|
| [BIKE](https://bikesuite.org/) | Bit flipping key encapsulation based on QC-MDPC (Quasi-Cyclic Moderate Density Parity-Check) [ABB+ 20](#[ABB+ 20]) | Public-key Encryption and Key-establishment | Round Three Alternative |
| [CRYSTALS-Dilithium](https://pq-crystals.org/dilithium/) | Digital signature scheme based on the hardness of lattice problems over module lattices | Digital Signature | Round 3 Finalist |
| [Falcon](https://falcon-sign.info/) | Lattice-based signature scheme based on the short integer solution problem (SIS) over NTRU lattices [FHK+ 20](#[FHK+ 20]) | Digital Signature | Round 3 Finalist |
| [FrodoKEM](https://frodokem.org/)| Key encapsulation from generic lattices | Public-key Encryption and Key-establishment | Round Three Alternative |
| [GeMSS](https://www-polsys.lip6.fr/Links/NIST/GeMSS.html) | Multivariate signature scheme producing small signatures [CFP+ 19](#[CFP+ 19]) | Digital Signature | Round Three Alternative |
| [HQC](http://pqc-hqc.org/) | Hamming quasi-cyclic code-based public key encryption scheme | Public-key Encryption and Key-establishment | Round Three Alternative |
| [KYBER](https://pq-crystals.org/kyber/) | IND-CCA2-secure key-encapsulation mechanism (KEM) based on hard problems over module lattices [ABD+ 21](#[ABD+ 21])| Public-key Encryption and Key-establishment | Round 3 Finalist |
| [Classic McEliece](https://classic.mceliece.org/) | Code-based public-key cryptosystem based on random binary Goppa codes | Public-key Encryption and Key-establishment | Round 3 Finalist |
| [NTRU](https://ntru.org/) | Public-key cryptosystem based on lattice-based cryptography | Public-key Encryption and Key-establishment | Round 3 Finalist |
| [NTRU-Prime](https://ntruprime.cr.yp.to/) | Small lattice-based key-encapsulation mechanism (KEM) | Public-key Encryption and Key-establishment | Round 3 Alternative |
| [Picnic](https://microsoft.github.io/Picnic/) | Digital signature algorithems based on the zero-knowledge proof system and symmetric key primitives | Digital Signature | Round 3 Alternative |
| [Rainbow](https://www.pqcrainbow.org/)| Public key cryptosystem based on the hardness of solving a set of random multivariate quadratic systems | Digital Signature | Round 3 Finalist |
| [SABER](https://www.esat.kuleuven.be/cosic/pqcrypto/saber/) | IND-CCA2-secure Key Encapsulation Mechanism (KEM) based on the hardness of the Module Learning With Rounding problem (MLWR) | Public-key Encryption and Key-establishment | Round 3 Finalist |
| [SIKE](https://sike.org/)| Isogeny-based key encapsulation suite based on pseudo-random walks in supersingular isogeny graphs | Public-key Encryption and Key-establishment | Round 3 Alternative |
| [SPHINCS+](https://sphincs.org/) | A stateless hash-based signature scheme | Digital Signature | Round 3 Alternative |
||
| [NewHope](https://newhopecrypto.org/) | Key-exchange protocol based on the Ring-Learning-with-Errors (Ring-LWE) problem | Public-key Encryption and Key-establishment | Round Two |
| [qTESLA](https://qtesla.org/) | Signature schemes based on the hardness of the decisional Ring Learning With Errors (R-LWE) problem | Digital Signature | Round Two |
---
#### Performance Considerations
Evaluation of the performance of PQC algorithms in various facets, classified into thethree subcategories: *Algorithm Performance, Network Performance, and Hardware Performance*
###### Algorithm Performance
- Lattice-based evaluation on chosen hardware:
- [On Feasibility of Post-Quantum Cryptography on Small Devices](#references)
- [Towards Practical Deployment of Post-quantum Cryptography on Constrained Platforms and Hardware-Accelerated Platforms](#references)
- Improvements to CRYSTALS-KYBER:
- [Performance Optimization of Lattice Post-Quantum Cryptographic Algorithms on Many-Core Processors](#references)
- [Memory-Efficient High-Speed Implementation of Kyber on Cortex-M4](#references)
- Lattice-based vs. Isogeny-based:
- [Towards Post-Quantum Security for Cyber-PhysicalSystems: Integrating PQC into Industrial M2M Communication](#references)
- [Incorporating Post-Quantum Cryptographyin a Microservice Environment](#references)
- PQC in IoT:
- [From Pre-Quantum to Post-Quantum IoT Security: A Survey on Quantum-Resistant Cryptosystems for the Internet of Things](#references)
###### Hardware Performance
- CRYSTALS-Dilithium and qTesla:
- [NIST Post-Quantum Cryptography - A Hardware Evaluation Study](https://eprint.iacr.org/2019/047)
- Performance critial use cases:
- [Ultra-Fast Modular Multiplication Implementation for Isogeny-Based Post-Quantum Cryptography](#references)
- FPGA performance benefits:
- [Implementation and benchmarking of round 2 candidates in the NIST post-quantum cryptography standardization process using hardware and software/hardware co-design approaches](#references)
- [Post-Quantum Cryptography on FPGA Based on Isogenies on Elliptic Curves](#references)
- [Post-Quantum Secure Boot](#references)
###### Network Performacne
- Measurments and benchmarks:
- [Benchmarking Post-Quantum Cryptography in TLS](https://eprint.iacr.org/2019/1447)
- [Real-world measurements of structured-lattices and supersingular isogenies in TLS](https://www.imperialviolet.org/2019/10/30/pqsivssl.html)
- [Measuring TLS key exchange with post-quantum KEM](https://csrc.nist.gov/CSRC/media/Events/Second-PQC-Standardization-Conference/documents/accepted-papers/kwiatkowski-measuring-tls.pdf)
- [Post-Quantum Authentication in TLS 1.3: A Performance Study](http://eprint.iacr.org/2020/071)
- TLS, DTLS, IKEv2 and QUIC PQC integrations:
- [The TLS Post-Quantum Experiment](https://blog.cloudflare.com/the-tls-post-quantum-experiment/)
- [Post-Quantum TLS on Embedded Systems: Integrating and Evaluating Kyberand SPHINCS+ with Mbed TLS](#references)
- [The Viability of Post-quantum X.509 Certificates](https://eprint.iacr.org/2018/063)
- [Post-quantum Key Exchange for the Internet and the Open Quantum Safe Project](#references)
- VPN evaluations:
- [Two PQ Signature Use-cases: Non-issues,challenges and potential solutions](https://eprint.iacr.org/2019/1276)
#### Security Considerations
###### Algorithm, Parameter Selection and Tradeoffs
- Key/sig. size problematic for protocols:
- [The Viability of Post-quantum X.509 Certificates](http://google.com): Very interesting Paper!. [KPDG18](#[KPDG18])
###### Cryptanalysis
###### Side-Channel Attacks
#### Algorithm Migration Process
###### Hybrid and Combiner Approach
- [X.509-Compliant Hybrid Certificates for the Post-Quantum Transition](http://tubiblio.ulb.tu-darmstadt.de/115809/)
#### Automation and Frameworks
#### New Standards
---
## State of Agility
#### Modalities
#### Development Considerations
#### Testing
#### Incentives and Best Practices
#### Frontiers of Cryptography
---
## Open issues
---
## Standards
- [NIST PQC Standardization Process](https://csrc.nist.gov/projects/post-quantum-cryptography)
---
## Projects and Initiatives
- [Open Quantum Safe](https://openquantumsafe.org/)
- [Quantum RISC](https://www.quantumrisc.de/)
- [Eclipse CogniCrypt]( https://www.eclipse.org/cognicrypt/)
---
## Cryptographic Libraries and Interfaces
- [NaCL (Salt)](https://nacl.cr.yp.to/):
Software library for network communication, encryption, decryption, signatures, etc.
- [Libsodium](https://libsodium.gitbook.io/doc/):
Portable, cross-compilable, installable, packageable fork of NaCl, with a compatible API software library for encryption, decryption, signatures, password hashing etc.
- [LibHydrogen](https://github.com/jedisct1/libhydrogen):
Lightweight crypto library for constrained environments.
- [WASI Cryptography APIs](https://github.com/WebAssembly/wasi-crypto):
Development of cryptography API proposals for the WASI Subgroup of the [WebAssembly Community Group](https://www.w3.org/community/webassembly/)
- [eUCRITE API](https://use-a-pqclib.h-da.io/eucrite-documentation/):
PQC library interface, that provides quantum-resistant cryptographic schemes in abstract manner. It provides not only PQC-based encryption, but also signature schemes. The end-user has the choice between three different security levels based on the strenght and performance of the chosen algorithems. This abstraction aims at supporting crypt-agility and is expected to make using PQC-schemes easier. Collaborations on our cryptographic API, and a special update mechanism for said API are also under development.
---
## References
##### Related Work
- [OPp19] <a name="[OPp19]">[D. Ott, C. Peikert, and participants. 2019. Identifying Research Challengesin Post Quantum Cryptography Migration and Cryptographic Agility. (Sept.2019).](https://cra.org/crn/2019/10/research-challenges-in-post-quantum-cryptography-migration-and-cryptographic-agility/)</a>
- Our paper <a name="paper">Our Paper</a>
- [NCCoE] <a name="nccoe">[NCCoE](https://www.nccoe.nist.gov/projects/building-blocks/post-quantum-cryptography)</a>
- SIT <a name="sit">[Frauenhofer SIT](https://www.sit.fraunhofer.de/fileadmin/dokumente/studien_und_technical_reports/Practical.PostQuantum.Cryptography_WP_FraunhoferSIT.pdf?_=1503992279)</a>
- [FC20] <a name="[FC20]">Tiago M. Fernández-C. 2020. From Pre-Quantum to Post-Quantum IoT Security:A Survey on Quantum-Resistant Cryptosystems for the Internet of Things.IEEEInternet of Things Journal7, 7 (2020), 6457–6480</a>
- [AVVY19] <a name="[AVVY19]">F. Armknecht, I. Verbauwhede, M. Volkamer, and M. Yung (Eds.). 2019.Biggest Failures in Security. Dagstuhl Reports, Vol. 9. Dagstuhl Publishing</a>
- [XXX] <a name="[XXX]">[W. Barker, W. Polk, and M. Souppaya. 2020. Getting Ready for Post-QuantumCryptography:: Explore Challenges Associated with Adoption and Use of Post-Quantum Cryptographic Algorithms. preprint.](https://doi.org/10.6028/NIST.CSWP.05262020-draft)</a>
- [XXX] <a name="[XXX]">[BSI. 2020. Migration zu Post-Quanten-Kryptografie.](https://www.bsi.bund.de/SharedDocs/Downloads/DE/BSI/Krypto/Post-Quanten-Kryptografie.html)</a>
- [XXX] <a name="[XXX]">T. Hemmert, M. Lochter, D. Loebenberger, M. Margraf, S. Reinhardt, and G.Sigl. 2021. Quantencomputerresistente Kryptografie: Aktuelle Aktivitäten undFragestellungen. InTagungsband zum 17. Deutschen IT-Sicherheitskongress, Ger-man Federal Office for Information Security (BSI) (Ed.). SecuMedia Verlag,Ingelheim, Germany, 367–380</a>
- [XXX] <a name="[XXX]">[M. Campagna, L. Chen, O. Dagdelen, J. Ding, J Fernick, N. Gisin, D. Hay-ford, T. Jennewein, N. Lütkenhaus, and M. Mosca. 2015.Quantum SafeCryptography and Security: An introduction, benefits, enablers and chal-lenges.European Telecommunications Standards InstituteETSI White Paper,8 (June 2015), 1–64.](https://www.etsi.org/images/files/ETSIWhitePapers/QuantumSafeWhitepaper.pdf)</a>
---
##### PQC Algorithms
- [CJL+ 16] <a name="[CJL+ 16]">L. Chen, S. Jordan, Y. Liu, D. Moody, R. Peralta, R. Perlner, and D. Smith-Tone.2016.Report on post-quantum cryptography. Vol. 12. US Department of Com-merce, National Institute of Standards and Technology</a>
- [AASA+ 19] <a name="[AASA+ 19]">G. Alagic, J. Alperin-Sheriff, D. Apon, D. Cooper, Q. Dang, Y. Liu, C. Miller, D.Moody, R. Peralta, et al.2019.Status report on the first round of the NIST post-quantum cryptography standardization process. US Department of Commerce,National Institute of Standards and Technology</a>
- [MAA+ 20] <a name="[MAA+ 20]">[D. Moody, G. Alagic, D. C Apon, D. A. Cooper, Q. H. Dang, J. M. Kelsey, Y.Liu, C. A. Miller, R. C. Peralta, R. A. Perlner, A. Y. Robinson, D. C. Smith-Tone,and J. Alperin-Sheriff. 2020. Status report on the second round of the NISTpost-quantum cryptography standardization process.](https://doi.org/10.6028/NIST.IR.8309)</a>
---
- [ABB+ 20] <a name="[ABB+ 20]">N. Aragon, P. Barreto, S. Bettaieb, L. Bidoux, O. Blazy, J. C. Deneuville, P. Ga-borit, S. Gueron, T. Guneysu, C. A. Melchor, et al.2020. BIKE: bit flipping keyencapsulation. (22 Oct 2020)</a>
- [XXX] <a name="[XXX]">L. Ducas, E. Kiltz, T. Lepoint, V. Lyubashevsky, P. Schwabe, G. Seiler, and D.Stehlé. 2021. CRYSTALS-Dilithium Algorithm Specifications and SupportingDocumentation.Round-3 submission to the NIST PQC project(8 Feb 2021)</a>
- [FHK+ 20] <a name="[FHK+ 20]">P. A. Fouque, J. Hoffstein, P. Kirchner, V. Lyubashevsky, T. Pornin, T. Prest, T.Ricosset, G. Seiler, W. Whyte, and Z. Zhang. 2020. Falcon: Fast-fourier lattice-based compact signatures over NTRU specifications v1. 2.NIST Post-QuantumCryptography Standardization Round3 (2020).</a>
- [XXX] <a name="[XXX]">M. Naehrig, E. Alkim, J. W Bos, L. Ducas, K. Easterbrook, B. LaMacchia, P. Longa,I. Mironov, V. Nikolaenko, C. Peikert, et al.2020. Frodokem learning with errorskey encapsulation.NIST PQC Round3 (2020).</a>
- [CFP+ 19] <a name="[CFP+ 19]"> Casanova, J. C. Faugere, G. M. R. J. Patarin, L. Perret, and J. Ryckeghem.2019. GeMSS: a great multivariate short signature.Submission to NIST PQCcompetition Round-2(2019)</a>
- [ABD+ 21] <a name="[ABD+ 21]"> R. Avanzi, J. Bos, L. Ducas, E. Kiltz, T. Lepoint, V. Lyubashevsky, J. M. Schanck,P. Schwabe, G. Seiler, and D. Stehlé. 2021. CRYSTALS-Kyber algorithm specifi-cations and supporting documentation (version 3.01).NIST PQC Round 3(31Jan 2021)</a>
##### Performance Considerations
- S. Koteshwara, M. Kumar, and P. Pattnaik. 2020. Performance Optimization of Lattice Post-Quantum Cryptographic Algorithms on Many-Core Processors.In2020 IEEE International Symposium on Performance Analysis of Systems andSoftware (ISPASS). 223–225
- L. Botros, M. J. Kannwischer, and P. Schwabe. 2019. Memory-Efficient High-Speed Implementation of Kyber on Cortex-M4. InProgress in Cryptology –AFRICACRYPT 2019, J. Buchmann and T. Nitaj, A.and Rachidi (Eds.). Vol. 11627.Springer International Publishing, 209–228
- S. Paul and P. Scheible. 2020. Towards Post-Quantum Security for Cyber-PhysicalSystems: Integrating PQC into Industrial M2M Communication. InComputerSecurity – ESORICS 2020. Vol. 12309. Springer International Publishing, 295–316
- D. Weller and R. van der Gaag. 2020. Incorporating post-quantum cryptographyin a microservice environment. (2020), 36
- Tiago M. Fernández-C. 2020. From Pre-Quantum to Post-Quantum IoT Security:A Survey on Quantum-Resistant Cryptosystems for the Internet of Things.IEEEInternet of Things Journal7, 7 (2020), 6457–6480
- L. Malina, L. Popelova, P. Dzurenda, J. Hajny, and Z. Martinasek. 2018. On Fea-sibility of Post-Quantum Cryptography on Small Devices(15th IFAC Conferenceon Programmable Devices and Embedded Systems PDeS 2018), Vol. 51. 462–467
- L. Malina, S. Ricci, P. Dzurenda, D. Smekal, J. Hajny, and T. Gerlich. 2020. To-wards Practical Deployment of Post-quantum Cryptography on ConstrainedPlatforms and Hardware-Accelerated Platforms. InInnovative Security Solu-tions for Information Technology and Communications. Springer InternationalPublishing, 109–124
---
- K. Basu, D. Soni, M. Nabeel, and R. Karri. 2019. NIST Post-Quantum Cryptogra-phy - A Hardware Evaluation Study. https://eprint.iacr.org/2019/047
- J. Tian, J. Lin, and Z. Wang. 2019. Ultra-Fast Modular Multiplication Implementa-tion for Isogeny-Based Post-Quantum Cryptography. In2019 IEEE InternationalWorkshop on Signal Processing Systems (SiPS). 97–102
- V. Ba Dang, F. Farahmand, M. Andrzejczak, K. Mohajerani, D. T. Nguyen, andK. Gaj. 2020. Implementation and benchmarking of round 2 candidates in thenist post-quantum cryptography standardization process using hardware andsoftware/hardware co-design approaches.Cryptology ePrint Archive: Report2020/795(2020)
- B. Koziel, R. Azarderakhsh, M. Mozaffari Kermani, and D. Jao. 2017. Post-Quantum Cryptography on FPGA Based on Isogenies on Elliptic Curves.IEEETransactions on Circuits and Systems I: Regular Papers64, 1 (Jan. 2017), 86–99
- V. B. Y. Kumar, N. Gupta, A. Chattopadhyay, M. Kasper, C. Krauß, and R. Nieder-hagen. 2020. Post-Quantum Secure Boot. In2020 Design, Automation Test inEurope Conference Exhibition (DATE). 1582–1585
---
- C. Paquin, D. Stebila, and G. Tamvada. 2019.Benchmarking Post-QuantumCryptography in TLS. Technical Report 1447. http://eprint.iacr.org/2019/1447
- A. Langley. 2019. Real-world measurements of structured-lattices and supersin-gular isogenies in TLS. https://www.imperialviolet.org/2019/10/30/pqsivssl.html
- K. Kwiatkowski, N. Sullivan, A. Langley, D. Levin, and A. Mislove. 2019. Measur-ing TLS key exchange with post-quantum KEM. InWorkshop Record of the SecondPQC Standardization Conference. https://csrc. nist. gov/CSRC/media/Events/Second-PQC-Standardization-Conference/documents/accepted-papers/kwiatkowski-measuring-tls. pdf
- D. Sikeridis, P. Kampanakis, and M. Devetsikiotis. 2020.Post-Quantum Au-thentication in TLS 1.3: A Performance Study. Technical Report 071.http://eprint.iacr.org/2020/071
- K. Kwiatkowski and L. Valenta. 2019. The TLS Post-Quantum Experiment.https://blog.cloudflare.com/the-tls-post-quantum-experiment/
- K. Bürstinghaus-Steinbach, C. Krauß, R. Niederhagen, and M. Schneider. 2020.Post-Quantum TLS on Embedded Systems: Integrating and Evaluating Kyberand SPHINCS+ with Mbed TLS. InProceedings of the 15th ACM Asia Conferenceon Computer and Communications Security (ASIA CCS ’20). Association forComputing Machinery, 841–852
- P. Kampanakis, P. Panburana, E. Daw, and D. Van Geest. 2018. The Viabilityof Post-quantum X.509 Certificates.IACR Cryptol. ePrint Arch.2018 (2018).http://eprint.iacr.org/2018/063
- D. Stebila and M. Mosca. 2016. Post-quantum Key Exchange for the Internetand the Open Quantum Safe Project. InSelected Areas in Cryptography – SAC2016, R. Avanzi and H. Heys (Eds.). Springer International Publishing, 14–37.https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-69453-5_2
- P. Kampanakis and D. Sikeridis. 2019.Two PQ Signature Use-cases: Non-issues,challenges and potential solutions. Technical Report 1276. https://eprint.iacr.org/2019/1276
##### Algorithm & Parameter Selection
- [KPDG18] <a name="[KPDG18]">[P. Kampanakis, P. Panburana, E. Daw, and D. Van Geest. The Viability of Post-quantum X.509 Certificates. IACR Cryptol. ePrint Arch., 2018, 2018.](https://google.de)</a>
## Contributing
Your contributions are always welcome! Please take a look at the [contribution guidelines](Contribution Guidlines.md) first.
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